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August 1994 External Review Draft

Health Assessment Document for 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and Related Compounds Volume III of III

NOTICE

THIS DOCUMENT IS A PRELIMINARY DRAFT. It has not been formally released by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and should not at this stage be construed to represent Agency policy. It is being circulated for comment on its technical accuracy and policy implications. Office of Health and Environmental Assessment Office of Research and Development U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, D.C.

DISCLAIMER

This document is an external draft for review purposes only and does not constitute Agency policy. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

Health Assessment Document for 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and Related Compounds

go to Contents - Overview EPA/600/BP-92/001a,b,c

CONTENTS - VOLUME III

SELECT Tables
SELECT Figures
SELECT Abbreviations and Acronyms
SELECT Preface
SELECT Authors, Contributors, and Reviewers
go to 9.0. PAGE 1
  RISK CHARACTERIZATION OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-p-DIOXIN (TCDD) AND RELATED COMPOUNDS

9.1. INTRODUCTION [9-1]

9.2. CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES [9-3]

9.3. ENVIRONMENTAL FATE [9-7]

9.4. SOURCES [9-8]

9.4.1. Levels in the Environment and in Food [9-13]

9.4.2. Background Exposure Levels [9-14]

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9.4.3. Highly Exposed Populations [9-19]

9.5. DISPOSITION AND PHARMACOKINETICS [9-23]

9.6. MECHANISMS OF DIOXIN ACTION [9-30]

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9.7. TOXIC EFFECTS OF DIOXIN [9-36]

9.7.1. General Comments [9-36]

9.7.2. Chloracne [9-38]

9.7.3. Carcinogenicity [9-39]

9.7.4. Reproductive and Developmental Effects [9-44]

9.7.5. Immunotoxicity [9-48]

9.7.6. Other Effects [9-50]

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9.7.6.1. Circulating Reproductive Hormones [9-51]

9.7.6.2. Diabetes and Fasting Serum Glucose Levels [9-51]

9.7.6.3. Enzyme Induction [9-51]

9.7.6.4. Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GOT) Activity [9-52]

9.7.6.5. Endometriosis .............. [9-52]

9.8. DOSE-RESPONSE CONSIDERATIONS [9-53]

9.9. USE OF TOXICITY EQUIVALENCE [9-59]

9.10. KEY ASSUMPTIONS AND INFERENCES [9-70]

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9.11. OVERALL CONCLUSIONS REGARDING THE IMPACT OF DIOXIN AND RELATED COMPOUNDS ON HUMAN HEALTH [9-74]

REFERENCES FOR CHAPTER 9 [ 9-89]