Volume II Chapter 3.0 Pages 10 of 10 page    

3.8. COMPARING SOURCE EMISSIONS TO DEPOSITION ESTIMATES 3-167

REFERENCES FOR CHAPTER 3

3.8. COMPARING SOURCE EMISSIONS TO DEPOSITION ESTIMATES

As discussed in Section 3.1, several investigators have attempted to conduct "mass balance" checks on the estimates of national dioxin releases to the atmosphere. Basically, this procedure involves comparing estimates of the emissions to estimates of aerial deposition. Such studies in Sweden and Great Britain have suggested that the deposition exceeds the estimated emissions by about 10-fold. These studies are acknowledged to be quite speculative due to the strong potential for inaccuracies in the emission and/or deposition estimates. In addition, the apparent discrepancies could be explained by long range transport from outside the country, resuspension and deposition of reservoir sources, atmospheric transformations, or unidentified sources. Bearing these limitations in mind, this procedure has been used below to compare the estimated emissions and deposition in the U.S.

Koester and Hites (1992) measured both wet and dry deposition of CDD/CDFs at two locations in Indiana. These measurements indicate a range of 370 to 540 ng/m2-yr on a total CDD/CDF basis. If perfect congener distribution is assumed for the Koester and Hites measurements, these total deposition rates correspond to about 1 to 2 ng TEQ/m2-yr. Based on studies of temporal trends in CDD/CDF concentrations in sediments from Green Lake, a non-industrially impacted lake near Syracuse, New York, Smith et al. (1993) have calculated the total CDD/CDF atmospheric deposition rate to be 375 ng/m2-yr for the period 1986 to 1990 which is very similar to that reported by Koester and Hites (1992). Andersson et al. (1992) estimated a deposition rate of 1 ng TEQ/m2-yr on the basis of snow measurements in Northern Sweden.

Fernandez et al. (1992) measured the wet and dry deposition over a period of one month at an urban/semiurban location in Great Britain. Assuming that the deposition measured over the one month period is representative of an entire year, then the rate of deposition is 13 ng TEQ/m2-yr (setting nondetects equal zero) or 17 ng TEQ/m2-yr (setting nondetects at half the detection limit). Van Jaarsveld and Schutter (1992), using long range transport modelling, estimate that national average deposition rates in Northern European countries are in the range of 1 to 10 ng TEQ/m2-yr.

In 1992, Hiester et al. (1993) collected two month duration deposition samples in seven urban and one rural location in Germany. The total CDD/CDF deposition rates ranged, on an annualized basis, from 246 to 1,687 ng/m2-yr at the urban locations and 420 ng/m2-yr at the rural location. The TEQ deposition rates ranged from 3.6 to 30.3 ng TEQ/m2-day at the urban locations and 4.4 ng TEQ/m2-day at the rural location. For these calculations, Hiester et al. (1993) set nondetects equal to zero.

Liebl et al. (1993) reported the results of long term deposition measurements at three locations in Germany: a rural region with some industry, a rural "background" site, and an industrial/living area site. The deposition rates, based on 11 months of measurement in 1992, were reported as 1.1 ng TEQ/m2-yr for the rural background site, 1.5 ng TEQ/m2-yr for the rural/industrial site (estimated from figure in the report), and 7.6 ng TEQ/m2-yr for the industrial/living area site (estimated from figure in the report).

Fiedler (1993) reports that the average deposition rate for rural areas in Germany (defined as agriculture, forest, and water) is 4.4 TEQ/m2-yr with a range of 1.8 to 7.3 ng TEQ/m2-yr. The estimated deposition rate in industrialized areas typically ranges from 7.3 to 36 ng TEQ/m2-yr with even higher deposition rates (up to 1,000 ng TEQ/m2-yr) in a small number of areas.

Broman et al. (1991) collected a two-month duration deposition sample at a remote open coastal area in Sweden and reported a deposition rate for total CDD/CDFs of 38 ng/m2-yr. Näf et al. (1992) measured the flux of CDD/CDFs to aquatic sediments at two remote background sites; one in the Bothnian Sea and the other in the Baltic Sea. The measured rates for total CDD/CDFs ranged from 240 to 1,200 ng/m2-yr and for TEQ ranged from 3 to 14 ng TEQ/m2-yr. Atmospheric deposition was presumed by the authors to be the principal source of the measured flux because the sampling sites were located far from coastal areas, freshwater input sources, and industrial input.

For purposes of generating a preliminary estimate of CDD/CDF deposition in the United States, it is assumed that the deposition rate of 1 ng TEQ/m2-yr measured in Sweden applies to Alaska (land area = 1.5 x 1012 m2). The average deposition rate for the continental United States (land area = 7.8 x 1012m2) could be as low as 2 ng TEQ/m2-yr (based on limited U.S. data) or perhaps about 6 ng TEQ/m2-yr (based on European data). Based on these assumptions, total U.S. deposition can be estimated as about 20,000 to 50,000 g TEQ/yr. This range can be compared to the range of estimated annual air emissions in the United States, 3,300 - 26,000 g TEQ/yr, as presented in Table 3-2. As noted above however, making and interpreting such comparisons is highly speculative considering the very limited data on emissions and deposition.

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