Volume II Chapter 3.0 Index
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01 3.0 3.2.2.

3.0 SOURCES 3-1

3.1. OVERVIEW OF SOURCES 3-1

3.2. PULP AND PAPER MILLS 3-14

3.2.1. Bleached Chemical Wood Pulp and Paper Mills 3-14

3.2.2. Nonchemical and Nonwood Pulping and Bleaching Mills 3-18

01 go to
02 3.2.3. 3.4.1.5.

3.2.3. Ongoing Regulatory Investigations 3-19

3.3. PUBLICLY OWNED TREATMENT WORKS (POTWs) 3-20

3.3.1. Sources of CDDs/CDFs 3-20

3.3.2. Releases of CDDs/CDFs 3-22

3.4. CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING AND PROCESSING SOURCES 3-25

3.4.1. Manufacture of Halogenated Organic Chemicals - Overview 3-25

3.4.1.1. Chlorophenols 3-25

3.4.1.2. Chlorobenzenes 3-28

3.4.1.3. Chlorobiphenyls 3-33

3.4.1.4. Aliphatic Chlorine Compounds 3-33

3.4.1.5. Dyes and Pigments 3-35

02 go to
03 3.4.2. 3.5.

3.4.2. Manufacture of Halogenated Organic Chemicals - Dioxin/Furan Test Rule Data 3-37

3.4.3. Manufacture of Halogenated Organic Chemicals-Pesticide Data Call-In 3-44

3.4.4. Chlorine Production Using Graphite Electrodes 3-56

3.4.5. Petroleum Refining Catalyst Regeneration 3-59

3.4.6. Additional Chemical Manufacturing and Processing Sources 3-62

3.5. MECHANISMS OF FORMATION OF DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS DURING COMBUSTION OF ORGANIC MATERIALS 3-63

03 go to
04 3.5.1. 3.5.2.

3.5.1. CDD/CDF Contamination in Fuel as a Source of Combustion Stack Emissions 3-64

3.5.2. Formation of CDDs/CDFs from Precursor Compounds 3-67

04 go to
05 3.5.3. 3.5.5.

3.5.3. The de novo Synthesis of CDDs/CDFs During Combustion of Organic Materials 3-75

3.5.4 Theory on the Emission of Polychlorinated Biphenyls 3-91

3.5.5. Evaluation of Naturally Occurring CDD/CDFs by Examination of Sediment Core Data 3-92

05 go to
06 3.5.6. 3.6.3.

3.5.6. Summary of Theories of CDD/CDF Emissions 3-94

3.6. COMBUSTION AND OTHER HIGH TEMPERATURE SOURCES 3-96

3.6.1. Municipal Solid Waste Incineration 3-97

3.6.2. Hazardous Waste Incineration 3-109

3.6.3. Medical Waste Incineration 3-112

06 go to
07 3.6.4. 3.6.12.

3.6.4. Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers 3-119

3.6.5. Sewage Sludge Incineration 3-120

3.6.6. Primary Nonferrous Metal Smelting/Refining 3-122

3.6.7. Secondary Nonferrous Metal Smelting/Refining 3-123

3.6.7.1 Secondary Aluminum Smelters and Refiners 3-124

3.6.7.2 Secondary Copper Smelters and Refiners 3-124

3.6.7.3 Secondary Lead Smelters and Refiners 3-125

3.6.8. Primary Ferrous Metal Smelting/Refining 3-128

3.6.9. Secondary Ferrous Metal Smelting/Refining 3-129

3.6.10. Scrap Electric Wire Recovery 3-129

3.6.11. Drum and Barrel Reclamation and Incineration 3-131

3.6.12. Tire Combustion 3-132

07 go to
08 3.6.13. 3.6.16.

3.6.13. Motor Vehicle Fuel Combustion 3-134

3.6.14. Wood Burning at Residences 3-143

3.6.15. Industrial Wood-Burning Facilities 3-146

3.6.16. Wood Burned in Forest Fires 3-147

08 go to
09 3.6.17. 3.7.

3.6.17. Coal Combustion 3-151

3.6.18. Combustion of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) 3-152

3.6.19. Pyrolysis of Brominated Flame Retardants 3-153

3.6.20. Carbon Reactivation Furnaces 3-154

3.6.21. Cement Kilns 3-156

3.6.22. Additional Combustion and High Temperature Sources 3-165

3.7. RESERVOIR SOURCES 3-166

09 go to
10 3.8. REF

3.8. COMPARING SOURCE EMISSIONS TO DEPOSITION ESTIMATES 3-167

REFERENCES FOR CHAPTER 3

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